Uncovering the Fascinating Diversity of Pakistan


Pakistan exhibits a culturally rich environment where various cultures coexist side by side in the same land. Most regions of the world do not possess such rare cultural diversity. Pakistani culture’s multifariousness stems from the different ethnicities, languages, religions, and creeds comprising the country. Every region from Gilgit to Karachi has its language, crafts, music taste, food, and cast, which set it apart from the rest of the country.


Historically, people from almost all parts of the world have come and settled in present-day Pakistan, which has undergone a long cultural evolution. This agriculturally rich land offers four seasons, considered a favorable condition for life to flourish. During these foreign settlements, foreigners left cultural remnants, which the land accepted and incorporated into a rich native culture of the Sub-continent.

Cultural Diversity in of Pakistan

Pakistan’s cultural diversity can be seen in its various provinces, each with its unique traditions and customs.


The people of Punjab, the biggest province of the country by population, celebrate colorful festivals such as Basant, which marks the arrival of spring. During Basant, they fly kites, wear colorful clothes, and feast on traditional food. They also celebrate Baisakhi, which marks the harvesting of crops. People dress in traditional clothes and dance to the beat of the dhol, a traditional drum, while enjoying delicious food.

You may also like our blog on the Rich Traditional Music of Pakistan.


The Indus Valley Civilization dates back to Sindh’s rich cultural heritage. Sindhi people, known for their hospitality and warmth, welcome guests with open arms. They celebrate various festivals throughout the year, such as Urs, a Sufi festival, and Eid-ul-Azha, by sacrificing animals and distributing meat to the poor.


Pakistan’s largest province in terms of area is Balochistan, which possesses a unique cultural identity distinct from the rest of the country. The people of Balochistan are famous for their rich folklore, music, and dance. They pass down tales of heroism and bravery from generation to generation, maintaining a tradition of storytelling. The people of Balochistan take pride in their rich literary tradition in the unique Balochi language.


Many ethnic groups, including Pashtuns, Hazaraywaals, and Chitralis, call Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), previously known as the North-West Frontier Province (or Sarhad), their home. The traditional clothes, music, and dance of the people of this province reflect their rich cultural heritage. They also celebrate various festivals throughout the year, such as Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha, and the Kalash festival, which the Kalash tribe of Chitral celebrates.

Gilgit Baltistan

Gilgit-Baltistan, located in the northern part of Pakistan, is famous for its scenic beauty and rich cultural heritage. The region is home to various ethnic and linguistic groups, such as Shinas, Baltis, and Wakhi. The people of Gilgit-Baltistan celebrate various festivals throughout the year. One such event is the Shandur Polo Festival, which is held in July and attracts tourists from around the globe. The region is also known for its music, dance, and traditional handicrafts, such as woodcarving, embroidery, etc.

Food Diversity in Pakistan

The foods in Pakistan reflect its cultural diversity, and people prepare them differently from region to region. Unique dishes and cooking styles exist in each province. Punjabi cuisine, for instance, features spicy and flavorful dishes like chicken karahi and tandoori naan. Sindhi cuisine is famous for delicious biryanis and fish, while Balochi and KPK’s cuisines are known for their meat dishes, including sajji, kebabs, Kabuli pulao, and Dampukht.

External Impacts on Pakistan’s Culture

Various external influences have shaped Pakistan’s cultural diversity, including the Mughal Empire, which left a lasting impact on the country’s architecture, art, and literature. The British colonial rule also significantly impacted Pakistan’s culture, specifically in the areas of education, law, and governance.

National Identity

Pakistan’s culture exhibits a strong sense of national identity despite its diversity, as reflected in its national anthem, flag, and other symbols. Pakistanis feel proud of their cultural heritage and are always enthusiastic about sharing it with the world. Moreover, every Pakistani prioritizes their country above other cultural identities.


Pakistanis take pride and fascination in the cultural diversity of their country, which is reflected in the unique traditions and customs of its various provinces, showcasing its rich cultural heritage. Pakistan’s foods, music, languages, and art are a testament to the country’s cultural diversity and richness, which the people have maintained despite external influences and challenges, demonstrating their strong sense of national identity.

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